A three-dimensional spinel structure is formed on the architecture of the lithium manganate battery, which improves the flow of ions on the battery electrode, thereby reducing internal resistance and improving current carrying capacity. Another advantage of spinel is its high thermal stability, improved safety, but limited cycle and calendar life.
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It forms a three-dimensional crystal skeleton on the cathode of a lithium manganate battery. The spinel structure usually consists of a diamond shape connected into a lattice and usually appears after the battery formation. Spinel provides low resistance but lower specific energy than lithium cobalt oxide.
Low internal resistance allows fast charging and high current discharge. The 18650 cell, lithium manganate battery can be discharged at 20-30A current and has a moderate amount of heat accumulation. A load pulse of up to 50A 1 s can also be applied. Continuous high loads at this current will result in heat accumulation and the battery temperature must not exceed 80°C (176°F). Lithium manganate is used in power tools, medical devices, and hybrid and pure electric vehicles.
Lithium manganate has about a third less capacity than lithium cobalt oxide. Design flexibility allows engineers to choose between maximum battery life or maximum load current (specific power) or capacity (specific energy). For example, the long-life version of the 18650 battery has a modest capacity of 1,100mAh; The higher capacity version reaches 1,500mAh.
Today’s new lithium-manganate battery designs offer improvements in power, safety and life. Pure lithium manganate batteries are no longer common today, They are only used in special cases.